244. Shortest Word Distance II

 

Design a class which receives a list of words in the constructor, and implements a method that takes two words  word1  and  word2  and return the shortest distance between these two words in the list. Your method will be called  repeatedly  many times with different parameters. 

Example:
Assume that words = ["practice", "makes", "perfect", "coding", "makes"].

Input: _word1_ = “coding”, _word2_ = “practice”
Output: 3



Input: _word1_ = "makes", _word2_ = "coding"
Output: 1

Note:
You may assume that  word1  does not equal to  word2 , and  word1  and  word2  are both in the list.

 

这道题是之前那道 Shortest Word Distance 的拓展,不同的是这次我们需要多次调用求最短单词距离的函数,那么用之前那道题的解法二和三就非常不高效,而当时摒弃的解法一的思路却可以用到这里,这里用 HashMap 来建立每个单词和其所有出现的位置的映射,然后在找最短单词距离时,只需要取出该单词在 HashMap 中映射的位置数组进行两两比较即可,参见代码如下:

 

解法一:

class WordDistance {
public:
    WordDistance(vector<string>& words) {
        for (int i = 0; i < words.size(); ++i) {
            m[words[i]].push_back(i);
        }
    }

    int shortest(string word1, string word2) {
        int res = INT_MAX;
        for (int i = 0; i < m[word1].size(); ++i) {
            for (int j = 0; j < m[word2].size(); ++j) {
                res = min(res, abs(m[word1][i] - m[word2][j]));
            }
        }
        return res;
    }
    
private:
    unordered_map<string, vector<int> > m;
};

 

我们可以优化上述的代码,使查询的复杂度由上面的 O(MN) 变为 O(M+N),其中M和N为两个单词的长度,需要两个指针i和j来指向位置数组中的某个位置,开始初始化都为0,然后比较位置数组中的数字,将较小的一个的指针向后移动一位,直至其中一个数组遍历完成即可,参见代码如下:

 

解法二:

class WordDistance {
public:
    WordDistance(vector<string>& words) {
        for (int i = 0; i < words.size(); ++i) {
            m[words[i]].push_back(i);
        }
    }

    int shortest(string word1, string word2) {
        int i = 0, j = 0, res = INT_MAX;
        while (i < m[word1].size() && j < m[word2].size()) {
            res = min(res, abs(m[word1][i] - m[word2][j]));
            m[word1][i] < m[word2][j] ? ++i : ++j;
        }
        return res;
    }
    
private:
    unordered_map<string, vector<int> > m;
};

 

Github 同步地址:

https://github.com/grandyang/leetcode/issues/244

 

类似题目:

Shortest Word Distance

Shortest Word Distance III 

Merge Two Sorted Lists

 

参考资料:

https://leetcode.com/problems/shortest-word-distance-ii/

https://leetcode.com/problems/shortest-word-distance-ii/discuss/67028/Java-Solution-using-HashMap

https://leetcode.com/problems/shortest-word-distance-ii/discuss/67066/9-line-O(n)-C%2B%2B-Solution

 

LeetCode All in One 题目讲解汇总(持续更新中…)


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